As a historian who’s always searching for the text or the image that makesus re-evaluate the past, I’ve become preoccupied with looking for photographsthat show our Victorian ancestors smiling (what better way to shatter the imageof 19th-century prudery?). I’ve found quite a few, and — since I
started postingthem on Twitter — they have been causing quite a stir. People have beensurprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh.They are noting that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as thehundred-or-so years that separate us fade away through our common experience oflaughter.
Of course, I need to concede that my collection of ‘Smiling Victorians’makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographicportraiture created between 1840 and 1900, the majority of which show sittersposing miserably and stiffly in front of painted backdrops, or staring absentlyinto the middle distance. How do we explain this trend?
During the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposuretimes were notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method (producing animage on a silvered copper plate) could take several minutes to complete,resulting in blurred images as sitters shifted position or adjusted their limbs.The thought of holding a fixed grin as the camera performed its magical dutieswas too much to contemplate, and so a non-committal blank stare became thenorm.
But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction ofthe Box Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today’sdigital standards, the exposure was almost instantaneous. Spontaneous smileswere relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for anexplanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile.
One explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through a cheesygrin. “Nature gave us lips to conceal our teeth,” ran one popular Victoriansaying, alluding to the fact that before the birth of proper dentistry, mouthswere often in a shocking state of hygiene. A flashing set of healthy and clean,regular ‘pearly whites’ was a rare sight in Victorian society, the preserve ofthe super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed).
A toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lackedclass: drunks, tramps, and music hall performers might gurn and grin with asmile as wide as Lewis Carroll’s gum-exposing Cheshire Cat, but it was not abecoming look for properly bred persons. Even Mark Twain, a man who enjoyed ahearty laugh, said that when it came to photographic portraits there could be“nothing more damning than a silly, foolish smile fixed forever”.
31. According to Paragraph 1, the author’s posts on Twitter
A. changed people’s impression of the Victorians.
B. highlighted social media’s role in Victorian studies.
C. re-evaluated the Victorians’ notion of public image.
D. illustrated the development of Victorian photography.
32. What does author say about the Victorian portraits he hascollected?
A. They are in popular use among historians.
B. They are rare among photographs of that age.
C. They mirror 19th-century social conventions.
D. They show effects of different exposure times.
33. What might have kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the1890s?
A. Their inherent social sensitiveness.
B. Their tension before the camera.
C. Their distrust of new inventions.
D. Their unhealthy dental condition.
34. Mark Twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictureswas
A. a deep-root belief.
B. a misguided attitude.
C. a controversial view.
D. a thought-provoking idea.
35. Which of the following questions does the text answer?
A. Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?
B. Why did the Victorians start to view photographs?
C. What made photography develop slowly in the Victorian period?
D. How did smiling in photographs become a post-Victorian norm?
31. A changed people’s impression of the Victorians.改变人们对于维多利亚人的印象
分析：A根据关键词post on Twitter 定位到第一段I have fond quite …Twitter-they…stir.继续读下文综合全段，作者目的是重新评估历史，改变人们对于维多利亚人的印象。B选项无中生有，没有social media;C偷换概念，文章past，选项public image. D 偷换概念，谈的并非照片发展而是人们对维多利亚人印象。
32. B They are rare among photographs of that age.在那个时代的照片中他们很少见
分析：B根据关键词维多利亚肖像定位到第二段第一句，only a tiny percentage同义替换rare。很少见的类型。A选项没有体现流行，C无社会传统。D 非定位处，出现在下文。
33 D Their unhealthy dental conditions. 不健康的牙齿情况
分析：根据关键词“18世纪90年代阻止维多利亚人微笑”定位到第四段，spontaneous smiles were relatively easyto capture by the 1980s…接着往下看第五段，解释原因，牙齿不好最后一句括号中，dental hygiene was notguaranteed 同义替换unhealthy dental condition.A内在社会敏感度，无中生有。B紧张，实属推理过度。C对于新发明的不信任，无中生有，没有体现。
34 A a deep-root belief 根深蒂固的信仰
分析：定位到最后一段，nothing more damning than a silly foolish smile fixed forever.看出人们对于在镜头前微笑的不喜欢是根深蒂固的。BCD在文章中均没有提及体现。
35 A Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?为什么大部分维多利亚人在照片中很严肃。
From the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-basedcompanies worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadbandconnections had the power and incentive to favor affiliated websites over theirrivals. That’s why there has been such a strong demand for rules that wouldprevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online, preservingthe freedom and innovation that have been the lifeblood of the internet.
Yet that demand has been almost impossible to fill—in part because ofpushback from broadband providers, anti-regulatory conservatives and the courts.A federal appeals court weighed in again Tuesday, but instead of providing abadly needed resolution, it only prolonged the fight. At issue before the U.S.Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit was the latest take of theFederal Communications Commission (FCC) on net neutrality, adopted on aparty-line vote in 2017. The Republican-penned order not only eliminated thestrict net neutrality rules the FCC had adopted when it had a Democraticmajority in 2015, but rejected the commission’s authority to require broadbandproviders to do much of anything. The order also declared that state and localgovernments couldn’t regulate broadband providers either.
The commission argued that other agencies would protect againstanti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate likeAT&T favoring its own video-streaming service at the expense of Netflix andApple TV. Yet the FCC also ended the investigations of broadband providers thatimposed data caps on their rivals’ streaming services but not their own.
On Tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 orderderegulating broadband providers, citing a Supreme Court ruling from 2005 thatupheld a similarly deregulatory move. But Judge Patricia Millett rightly arguedin a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from the realities ofmodern broadband service,” and said Congress or the Supreme Court couldintervene to “avoid trapping Internet regulation in technologicalanachronism.”
In the meantime, the court threw out the FCC’s attempt to block all staterules on net neutrality, while preserving the commission’s power to preemptindividual state laws that undermine its order. That means more battles like theone now going on between the Justice Department and California, which enacted atough net neutrality law in the wake of the FCC’s abdication.
The endless legal battles and back-and-forth at the FCC cry out forCongress to act. It needs to give the commission explicit authority once and forall to bar broadband providers from meddling in the traffic on their network andto create clear rules protecting openness and innovation online.
36. There has long been concern that broadband provides would
A. bring web-based firms under control.
B. slow down the traffic on their network.
C. show partiality in treating clients.
D. intensify competition with their rivals.
37. Faced with the demand for net neutrality rules, the Fcc
A. Sticks to an out-of-date order.
B. Takes an anti-regulatory stance.
C. Has issued a special resolution.
D. Has allowed the states to intervene.
38. What can be learned about AT&T from Paragraph 3?
A. It protects against unfair competition.
B. It engages in anti-competitive practices.
C. It is under the FCC’s investigation.
D. It is in pursuit of quality service.
39. Judge Patricia Millett argues that the appeals court’s decision
B. conveys an ambiguous message.
C. is at odds with its earlier rulings.
D. is out of touch with reality.
40. What does the author argue in the last paragraph?
A. Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.
B. The FCC should be put under strict supervision.
C. Rules need to be set to diversify online services.
D. Broadband providers’ rights should be protected.
36 C show partiality in treating client.表现出对于客户的不公平。
分析：根据关键词定位到第一段第一句，companies selling broadband connection had the power andincentive to favor…their rivals.说明有些公司会给关系好的公司优待。A under control 无中生有，B slowdown 没有体现，D intensify 一词属于推理过度。
37 B take an anti-regulatory stance 采取反监管立场。
38B. It engages in anti-competitive practices.参与到反对竞争的活动
竞争，偷换概念，C 属于将FCC和investigation拼凑，D 无中生有。
39 D is out of touch with reality 不符合现实
分析：根据大写人名定位到原文倒数第四段，is unhinged from the realities 脱离现实。A关注琐事，无中生有B表达模棱两可的信息，没有提及C 和早期裁决矛盾，没有体现。
40 A Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.国会需要采取行动来确保网络中立。
分析：根据关键词定位最后一段第一句，国会需要行动。B put under strict supervision 严格监管没有体现，Cdiversify 多样化无中生有，D 权利被保护和原文bar…from相反。
整体文章难度适中，大多题目可以找到定位点，认识单词同义替换即可以解出。学生还需加大单词量和短语积累，例如 be unhinged from表示脱离，比较低频，但是却影响做题。