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Last year marked the third year in a row that Indonesia’s bleak rate ofdeforestation has slowed in pace. One reason for the turnaround may be thecountry’s antipoverty program.

In 2007, Indonesia started phasing in a program that gives money to itspoorest residents under certain conditions, such as requiring people to keepkids in school or get regular medical care. Called conditional cash transfers

orCCTs, these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality andbreak the cycle of poverty. They’re already used in dozens of countriesworldwide. In Indonesia, the program has provided enough food and medicine tosubstantially reduce severe growth problems among children .

But CCT programs don’t generally consider effects on the environment. Infact poverty alleviation and environmental protection are often viewed asconflicting goals, says Paul Ferraro, an economist at Johns HopkinsUniversity.

That’s because economic growth can be correlated with environmentaldegradation, while protecting the environment is sometimes correlated withgreater poverty. However, those correlations don’t prove cause and effect. Theonly previous study analyzing causality, based on an area in Mexico that hadinstituted CCTs, supported the

traditional view. There, as people got moremoney, some of them may have more cleared land for cattle to raise for meat,Ferraro says.

Such programs do not have to negatively affect the environment, though.Ferraro wanted to see if Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affectingdeforestation. Indonesia has the third – largest area of tropical forest in theworld and one of the highest deforestation rates.

Ferraro analyzed satellite data showing annual forest loss from2008 to 2012- including during Indonesia’s phase — in of the antipoverty program — in7,468forested villages across 15 provinces and multiple islands. The duo separatedthe effects of the CCT program on forest loss from other factors, like weatherand macroeconomic changes, which were also affecting forest loss. With that, “wesee that the program is associated with a 30 percent reduction indeforestation,” Ferraro says.

That’s likely because the rural poor are using the money as makeshiftinsurance policies against inclement weather, Ferraro says. Typically, if rainsare delayed, people may clear land to plant more rice t0 supplement theirharvests. With the CCTs, individuals instead can use the money to supplementtheir harvests.

Whether this research translates elsewhere is anybody’s guess. Ferrarosuggests the results may transfer to other parts of Asia, due to commonalitiessuch as the importance of growing rice and market access. And regardless oftransfer ability, the study shows that what’s good for people may also be goodfor value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions aloneis more than the program costs.

26.According to the fist two paragraphs, CCT programs aim to

A. facilitate health care reform .

B. help poor families get better off.

C. improve local education systems .

D. lower deforestation rates .

27.The study based on an area in Mexico is cited to show that

A. cattle rearing has been a major means of livelihood for the poor

B.CCT programs have helped preserve traditional lifestyles .

C. antipoverty efforts require the participation of local farmers .

D. economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation .

28.In his study about Indonesia, Ferraro intends to find out

A.its acceptance level of CCTs.

B.its annual rate of poverty alleviation .

C. the relation of CCTs to its forest loss.

D. the role of its forests in climate change .

29. According to Ferraro, the CCT program in Indonesia is most valuable inthat

A.it will benefit other Asian countries .

B.it will reduce regional inequality .

C.it can protect the environment .

D.it can boost grain production .

30.What is the text centered on?

A.The effects of a program.

B .The debates over a program.

C.The process of a study.

D. The transfer ability of a study .

【正确答案】26.B 27.D 28.C 29.C 30.A

【解析】

26. 本题关键词是CCTs,根据题干要求定位到第2段第2句,题干的aim to和本句are designedto是同义词,原文本项目是为了消除不公平和打破贫困怪圈,因此选择B项帮助贫困家庭过得更好。A项强化健康护理改革不在定位句,为第2段首句,只是这个项目所做工作的其中一项的举例。C项改善当地教育系统也不在定位句,第2段首句这个项目所做工作举例只提到了要求人们让孩子上学。D项降低森林砍伐率在文章第一段,是这个项目实施后无意中带来的结果而不是设立初衷。因此正确答案选择B选项。

27.本题关键词是study和Mexico。根据关键词定位到第4段第3句,根据本句,在Mexico的研究支持传统观点,往前找找到第3段第2句,消除贫困和环境保护通常被视为是互相冲突的目标,此句的areoften viewedas表明这个观点是传统的、普遍的,并且第4段首句解释了人们这样认为的原因是经济增长会导致环境恶化,可见Mexico的研究支持经济增长会导致环境恶化这样的观点,因此选择D项。A项饲养牛是穷人的主要谋生方式属于对第四段最后一句的过度解读,原文只提到了穷人可能会把得到的钱用来养牛,B项CCT项目保护了传统的生活方式属于无中生有,原文中不能得出这样的观点,C项消除贫困需要当地农民的参与也并不能从原文中找到类似的观点,并且ABC三项都不是作者引用Mexico研究这个例子的主要目的,因此正确答案选D。

28.本题关键词是Ferraro intends to,根据关键词定位到文章第5段第2句,本句中wanted to 和题干intendsto是同义词组,根据本句Ferraro想要知道Indonesia消除贫困的行动是否会影响森林砍伐,C项CCT项目和森林损失之间的关系属于本句的同义改写,因此为正确选项。A项对CCT项目的接受程度、B项年均消除贫困率和D项森林在气候变化当中的角色均和原文不符,直接排除,因此正确答案为C。

29.本题问根据Ferraro的观点,CCT项目最有价值的地方体现在哪里,那么需要了解Ferraro有什么样的观点,此题提示我们可以从双引号和提到Ferraro的地方定位。首先,本文核心是在讲CCT项目和森林砍伐率之间的关系,其次,从文章第6段最后一句双引号所引Ferraro的原话得出CCT项目使Indonesia的森林砍伐率降低了30%,第7段开头“That’slikelybecause…”中代词that所指一定为前文所述内容,提示我们这一整段的写作目的是在为第6段服务,是在解释前文Ferraro所提到的CCT项目使Indonesia的森林砍伐率降低了30%这一现象。从最后一段前两句看出Ferraro认为CCT降低砍伐率这一结果在其他亚洲地区可能也是成立的,整段依然围绕CCT降低了森林砍伐率这一观点进行论述,所以文章最后两段都支持了第6段中Ferraro的观点,因此可以判定C选项为正确答

案。A选项CCT会使其他亚洲国家受益,相关原文为最后一段第2句,原文只是说这个结果可能会迁移到其他亚洲国家,并没有用肯定的语气;B选项会减轻区域不平等无中生有;D选项会增加粮食产量所涉及到的原文在最后一段第2句suchas后的举例内容,并非重点,且AD选项所涉及的原文都属于论证加强前文观点事实的部分,不是重点内容,因此本题答案选C。

30.本题属于主旨题,从原文中我们看到频率最高的两个词是CCTprogram和deforestation,整篇文章都在讲CCT项目对森林砍伐率的影响,因此本题选A。B选项关于项目的争论、C选项一项研究的过程和D选项一项研究的迁移能力都不是文章的中心论述点,因此本答案为A。

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