section i use of english
read the following text. choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [a], [b], [c],
or [d] on the answer sheet. (10 points)
caravanserais were roadside inns that were built along the silk road in areas including china, north africa and the middle east. they were typically 1 outside the walls of a city or village and were usually funded by governments of 2 .
this word “caravanserais” is a 3 of the persian word “karvan”, which means a group of travellers or a caravan and ‘seray’, a palace or enclosed building. the perm caravan was used to 4 groups of people who travelled together across the ancient network for safety reasons, 5 merchants, travellers or pilgrims.
from the 10th century onwards, as merchant and travel routes become more developed, the 6 of the caravanserais increased and they served as a safe place for people to rest at night. travellers on the silk road possibility of being attacked by thieves or being 8 to extreme conditions. for this reason, caravanserais were strategically placed 9 they could be reached in a day’s travel time.
caravanserais served as an informal l0 point for the various people who travelled the silk road. 11 those structures became important centers for culture 12 and interaction, with travelers sharing their cultures, ideas and beliefs, 13 talking knowledge with them, greatly 14 the development of several civilizations.
caravanserais were also an important marketplace for commodities and 15 in the trade of goods along the silk road. 16 , it was frequently the first stop merchants looking to sell their wares and 17 supplies for their own journeys. it is 18 that around 120000 to 15000 caravanserais were built along the silk road, 19 only about 3000 are known to remain today, many of which are in 20 .
1. [a] displayed [b] occupied [c] located [d] equipped
2. [a] privately [b] regularly [c] respectively [d] permanently
3. [a] definition [b] transition [c] substitution [d] combination
4. [a] classify [b] record [c] describe [d] connect
5. [a] apart from [b] instead of [c] such as [d] along with
6. [a] construction [b] restoration [c] impression [d] evaluation
7. [a] doubted [b] faced [c] accepted [d] reduced
8. [a] assigned [b] subjected [c] accustomed [d] opposed
9. [a] so that [b] even if [c] now that [d] in case
10. [a] talking [b] starting [c] breaking [d] meeting
11. [a] by the way [b] on occasion [c] in comparison [d] as a result
12. [a] heritage [b] revival [c] exchange [d] status
13. [a] with regard to [b] in spite of [c] as well as [d] in line with
14. [a] completing [b] influencing [c] resuming [d] pioneering
15. [a] aided [b] invested [c] failed [d] competed
16. [a] rather [b] indeed [c] otherwise [d] however
17. [a] go in for [b] stand up for [c] close in on [d] stock up on
18. [a] believed [b] predicted [c] recalled [d] implied
19. [a] until [b] because [c] unless [d] although
20. [a] ruins [b] debt [c] fashion [d] series
section ii reading comprehension
read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing [a], [b], [c], or [d]. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (40 points)
the weather in texas may have cooled since the recent extreme heat, but the temperature will be high at the state board of education meeting in austin this month as officials debate how climate change is taught in texas schools.
pathardy, who sympathizes with the views of the energy sector, is resisting proposed changes to science standards for pre-teen pupils. these would emphasize the primacy of human activity in recent climate change and encourage discussion of mitigation measures.
most scientists and experts sharply dispute hardy’s views. they casually dismiss the career work of scholars and scientists as just another misguided opinion.’’ says danquinn, senior communications strategist at the texas freedom network, a non-profit group that monitors public education. “what millions of texas kids learn in their public schools is determined too often by the political ideology of partisan board members, rather than facts and sound scholarship.”
such debates reflect fierce discussions across the us and around theworld, as researchers, policymakers, teachers and students step up demands for a greater focus on teaching about the facts of climate change in schools.
a study last year by the national center for science education, non-profit group of scientists and teachers, looking at how state public schools across the country address climate change in science classes, gave barely half of us states a grade b+ or higher. among the10 worst performers were some of the most populous states, including texas, which was given the lowest grade (f) and has a disproportionate influence because its textbooks are widely sold elsewhere.
glenn branch, the centre’s deputy director, cautions that setting state-level science standards is only one limited bench mark in a country that decentralises decisions to local school boards. even if a state is considered a high performer in its science standards, that does not mean it will be taught”, he says.
another issue is that, while climate change is well integrated into some subjects and at some ages-such as earth and space sciences in high schools – it is not as well represented in curricula for younger children and in subjects that are more widely taught, such as biology and chemistry. it is also less prominent in many social studies courses. branch points out that, even if a growing number of official guidelines and textbooks reflectscientific consensus on climate change, unofficial educational materials that convey more slanted
perspectives are being distributed to teachers. they include materials sponsored by libertarian think-tanks and energy industry associations.
21. in paragraph 1, the weather in texas is mentioned to ______.
[a] forecast a policy shift in texas schools
[b] stress the consequences of climate change
[c] indicate the atmosphere at the board meeting
[d] draw the public’s attention to energy shortages
22. what does quinn think of hardy?
[a] she exaggerates the existing panic.
[b] she denies the value of scientific work.
[c] she shows no concern for pre-teens.
[d] she expresses self-contradictory views.
23. the study mentioned in paragraph5 shows that ______.
[a] climate education is insufficient at state public schools
[b] policy makers have little drive for science education
[c] texas is reluctant to rewrite its science textbooks.
[d] environmental teaching in some states lacks supervision.
24. according to branch, state-level science standards in the us ______.
[a] call for regular revision
[b] require urgent application
[c] have limited influence
[d] cater to local needs.
25. it is implied in the last paragraph that climate change teaching in some schools ______.
[a] agrees to major public demands
[b] reflects teachers personal biases
[c] may misrepresent the energy sector
[d] can be swayed by external forces
communities throughout new england have been attempting to regulate short-term rentals since sites like airbnb took off in the 2010s. now with record-high home prices and historically low inventory, there’s an increased urgency in such regulation, particularly among those who worry that developers will come in and buy up swaths of housing to flip for a fortune on the short-term rental market.
in new hampshire, where the rental vacancy rate has dropped below 1 percent, housing advocates fear unchecked short-term rentals will put further pressure on an already strained market. the state legislature recently voted against a bill that would’ve made it illegal for towns to create legislation restricting short-term rentals.
“we are at a crisis level on the supply of rental housing,” said nick taylor, executive director of the workforce housing coalition of the greater seacoast. “without enough affordable housing in southern new hlampshire towns, employers are having a hard time finding a place to live,” taylor said.
however, short-term rentals also provide housing for tourists, pointed out ryan castle, ceo of a local association of realter. “a lot of workers are servicing the tourist industry, and the tourism industry is serviced by those people coming in short term,”castlesaid, “and so it’s a cyclical effect.”
short-term rentals themselves are not the crux of the issue, said kerenhom, an expert on affordable housing policy. i think individuals being able to rent out their second home is a good thing. if it’s their vacation home anyway, and it’s just empty, why can’t you make money off it?” horn said. issues arise, however, when developers attempt to create large-scale short-term rental facilities—de facto hotels—to bypass taxes and regulations. i think the question is, shouldn’t a developer who’s really building a hotel, but disguising it as not a hotel, be treated and taxed and regulated like a hotel?” horn said.
at the end of 2018, governar charlie balker of massachusetts signed a bill to rein in those potential investor-buyers. the bill requires every rental host to register with the state mandates they carry insurance and opens the potential for local taxes on top of a new state levy. boston took things even further, requiring renters to register with the city’s inspectional services department.
horn said similar registration requirements could benefit struggling cities and towns,but “if we want to make a change in the housing market, the main one is we have to build a lot more.”
26. which of the following is true of new england?
[a] its housing supply is at a very low level.
[b] its communities are in need of funding.
[c] its rental vacancy rate is going up slowly.
[d] its home prices are under strict control.
27. the bill mentioned in paragraph 2 was intended to ______.
[a] curb short-term rental speculation
[b] ensure the supply of cheap housing
[c] punish illegal dealings in housing
[d] allow a free short-term rental market
28. compared with castle, taylor is more likely to support ______.
[a] further investment in local tourism
[b] an increase in affordable housing
[c] strict management of real estate agents
[d] a favorable policy for short-term workers
29. what does horn emphasize in paragraph 5?
[a] the urgency to upgrade short-term rental facilities.
[b] the efficient operation of the local housing market.
[c] the necessity to stop developers from evading taxes.
[d] the proper procedure for renting out spare houses.
30. horn holds that imposing registration requirements is ______.
[a] an irrational decision
[b] an unfeasible proposal
[c] an unnecessary measure
[d] an inadequate solution
if you’re heading for your nearest branch of waterstones, the biggest book retailer in the uk, in search of the duchess of sussex’s new children’s book the bench, you might have to be prepared to hunt around a bit, the same may be true of the president’s daughter, the new thriller by bill clinton and james patterson. both of these books are published next week by penguin random house(prh), a company currently involved in a stand-off with waterstones.
the problem began late last year, when prh confirmed that it had introduced a credit limit with waterstones “at a very significant level”. the trade magazine the bookseller reported that waterstones branch managers were being told to remove prh books from prominent areas such as tables, display spaces and windows, and were “quietly retiring them to their relevant sections” .
prh declined to comment on the issue, but a spokesperson for waterstones told me: “waterstones are currently operating with reduced credit terms from prh, the only publisher in the uk to place any limitations on our ability to trade. we are not boycotting prh titles but we are doing our utmost to ensure that availability for customers remains good despite the lower overall levels of stock. we are hopeful with our shops now open again that normality will return and that we will be allowed to buy appropriately. certainly, our shops are exceptionally busy. the sales for our may books of the month surpassed any month since 2018.”
in the meantime, prh authors have been the losers. big-name prh authors may suffer a bit, but it’s those mid-list authors, who normally rely on waterstones staff’s passion for promoting books by lesser-known writers, who will be praying for an end to the dispute.
it comes at a time when authors are already worried about the consequences of the proposed merger between prh and another big publisher, simon & schuster—the reduction in the number of unaligned uk publishers is likely to lead to fewer bidding wars, lower advances, and more conformity in terms of what is published.
“this is all part of a wider change towards concentration of power,” says literary agent andrew lownie. “the publishing industry talks about diversity in terms of authors and staff but it also needs a plurality of ways of delivering intellectual contact, choice and different voices. after all, many of the most interesting books in recent years have come from small publishers.”
we shall see whether that plurality is a casualty of the current need among publishers to be big enough to take on all-comers.
31. the author mentions two books in paragraph 1 to present ______.
[a] an ongoing conflict.
[b] an intellectual concept.
[c] a prevailing sentiment.
[d] a literary phenomenon.
32. why did waterstones shops retire prh books to their relevant sections?
[a] to make them easily noticeable.
[b] to comply with prh’s requirement.
[c] to respond to prh’s business move.
[d] to arrange them in a systematic way.
33. what message does the spokesperson for waterstones seem to convey?
[a] their customers remain loyal.
[b] the credit limit will be removed.
[c] their stock is underestimated.
[d] the book market is rather slack.
34.what can be one consequence of the current dispute?
[a] sales of books by mid-list prh writers fall off considerably.
[b] lesser-known prh writers become the target of criticism.
[c] waterstones staff hesitate to promote big-name authors’ books.
[d] waterstones branches suffer a severe reduction in revenue.
35. which of the following statements best represents lownie’s view?
[a] small publishers ought to stick together.
[b] big publishers will lose their dominance.
[c] the publishing industry is having a hard time.
[d] the merger of publishers is a worrying trend.
scientific papers are the record keepers of progress in research. each year researchers publish millions of papers in more than 30,000 journals. the scientific community measures the quality of those papers in a number of ways, including the perceived quality of the journal (as reflected by the title’s impact factor) and the number of citations a specific paper accumulates. the careers of scientists and the reputation of their institutions depend on the number and prestige of the papers they produce, but even more so on the citations attracted by these papers.
citation cartels, where journals, authors, and institutions conspire to inflate citation numbers, have existed for a long time. in 2016, researchers developed an algorithm to recognize suspicious citation patterns, including groups of authors that disproportionately cite one another and groups of journals that cite each other frequently to increase the impact factors of their publications. recently, another expression of this predatory behavior has emerged: so-called support service consultancies that provide language and other editorial support to individual authors and to journals sometimes advise contributors to add a number of citations to their articles.
the advent of electronic publishing and authors’ need to find outlets for their papers resulted in thousands of new journals. the birth of predatory journals wasn’t far behind. these journals can act as milk cows where every single article in an issue may cite a specific paper or a series of papers. in some instances, there is absolutely no relationship between the content of the article and the citations. the peculiar part is that the journal that the editor is supposedly working for is not profiting at all — it is just providing citations to other journals. such practices can lead an article to accrue more than 150 citations in the same year that it was published.
how insidious is this type of citation manipulation? in one example, an individual—acting as author, editor, and consultant—was able to use at least 15 journals as citation providers to articles published by five scientists at three universities. the problem is rampant in scopus, a citation database, which includes a high number of the new “international” journals. in fact, a listing in scopus seems to be a criterion to be targeted in this type of citation manipulation.
scopus itself has all the data necessary to detect this malpractice. red flags include a large number of citations to an article within the first year. and for authors who wish to steer clear of citation cartel activities: when an editor, a reviewer, or a support service asks you to add inappropriate references, do not oblige and do report the request to the journal.
36. according to paragraph 1, the careers of scientists can be determined by________.
[a] how many citations their works contain.
[b] how many times their papers are cited.
[c] the prestige of the people they work with.
[d] the status they have in scientific circles.
37. the support service consultancies tend to________.
[a] recommend journals to their clients.
[b] list citation patterns their clients.
[c] ask authors to include extra citations.
[d] advise contributors to cite each other.
38. the function of the “milk cow” journals is to________.
[a] boost citation counts for certain authors.
[b] help scholars publish articles at low cost.
[c] instruct first-time contributors in citation.
[d] increase the readership of new journals.
39. what can be learned about scopus from the last two paragraphs?
[a] it fosters competition among citation providers.
[b] it has the capability to identify suspicious citations.
[c] it hinders the growth of “international” journals.
[d] it is established to prevent citation manipulation.
40. what should an author do to deal with citation manipulators?
[a] take legal action.
[b] demand an apology.
[c] seek professional advice
[d] reveal their misconduct.
the following paragraphs are given in a wrong order for questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list a-h and filling them into the numbered box. paragraphs a, e and h have been correctly placed. mark your answers on the answer sheet.(10 points)
[a] last year marked the 150th anniversary of a series of yellowstone photographs by the renowned landscape photographer william henry jackson. jackson snapped the 1st-ever shots of iconic landmarks such as the tetons, old faithful and the colorado rockies. on a late 19th-century expedition through the yellowstone basin that was conducted by the head of the u.s. geological and geographical survey of the territories, ferdinand v. hayden. the team included a meteorologist, a zoologist, a mineralogist, and an agricultural statistician.
[b] two centuries ago, the idea of preserving nature, rather than exploiting it, was a novel one to many u.s. settlers. one of the turning points in public support for land conservation efforts—and recognizing the magnificence of the yellowstone region in particular—came in the form of vivid photographs.
[c] as an effective washington operator, hayden sensed that he could capitalize on the expedition says murphy.
[d] throughout the trip, jackson juggled multiple cameras and plate sizes using thethat required him to coat the plates with a chemical mixture,then expose them and develop the resulting images with a portable darkroom.the crude technique required educated guesses on exposure times, and involved heavy awkward equipment -several men had to assist in its transportation. despite these challenges, jackson captured dozens of striking photos, ranging from majestic images like his now famous snapshot of old faithful, to casual portraits of expedition members at the camp. while veterans of previous expeditions wrote at length about stunning trail sights, these vivid photographs were another thing entirely.
[e] the journey officially began in ogden, utah on june 8,1871. over nearly four months, dozens of men made their way on horseback into montana and traversed along the yellowstone river and around yellowstone lake. that fall they concluded the survey in fort bridger, wyoming.
[f] though native americans (and later miners and fur trappers) had long recognized the areas expedition aimed to produce a fuller understanding of the yellowstone river region,from its hot springs and waterfalls to its variety of flora and fauna. in addition to the entourage of scientists, the team also included artists: painter thomas moran and photographer william henry jackson were charged with capturing this astounding natural beauty and sharing it with the world.
[g] the bill proved largely popular and sailed through congress with large majorities in favor. in quick succession, the senate and house passed legislation protecting yellowstone in early 1872. that march, president ulysses s.grant signed an act into law that established yellowstone as the world says hansen, journalist and author of prophets and moguls, rangers and rogues, bisonord bears:100 years of the national park service.
[h] perhaps most importantly, these images provided documentary evidence of the parks observations into an extensive report aimed at convincing senators and representatives, along with colleagues at government agencies like the department of the interior, that yellowstone ought to be preserved (and that his department deserved additional funds).
41.______→a→42. ______→e→43. ______→h→44. ______ 45. ______
read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into chinese. your translation should be written neatly on the answer sheet. (10 points)
there has been some exploration around the use of ai in digital marketing. for example, ai can be used to analyse what type of advertising content or copy would be appropriate to ‘speak’ to a specific target customer group by revealing information about trends and preferences through the analysis of big data. (46) ai can also be used to identify the lifestyle choices of customers regarding their hobbies favourite celebrities music choices and fashions to provide unique content in marketing messages put out through social media. at the same time ai can also be used to generate content for social media posts and chat sites. ai can also provide a bridge between the need of the brand to communicate emotionally with the customer and identifying their rapidly changing needs.
while working at pwc, norbert wirth wrote an article on al where he identified that marketers are equally eager and hesitant in adopting ai because synthesizing all these different functions presents them with new challenges. ai can help marketers to create clear marketing messages and choose the most attractive marketing mix for each target segment. a specific example would be the use of ai in developing the customer journey by automating all the different touchpoints(when the organization should contact the potential customer)through behavioural analytics so that they are the most effective for that customer or customer group.
the main disadvantage of using ai to respond to customers is that there are concerns about trusting personal interactions to machines which could lead not only to the subsequent loss of interpersonal connections but also to a decrease in marketing personnel. (47) some believe that ai is negatively impacting on the marketers role by reducing creativity and removing jobs, but they are aware that it is a way of reducing costs and creating new information. by allowing ai to develop content some brand marketers may find that they are losing control over the brand narrative.(48) algorithms that are used to stimulate human interactions are creating many of these concerns especially as no-one is quite sure what the outcomes of using ai to interact with customers will be.
for ai to be successful, data needs to be accessible, but the use of personal data is becoming more regulated and the automated sharing of data is becoming more difficult. (49) if customers are not willing to share data ai will be starved of essential information and will not be able to function effectively or employ machine learning to improve its marketing content and communication. therefore, unless customers are prepared to sign release agreements, the use of ai may become somewhat restricted in the future.
not only can ai help to create the marketing content but it can also provide a non-intrusive way of delivering the content to the target customers. data can be gathered on where the customer can be engaged, such as location devices used, website interactions, and sites visited, to display marketing messages in appropriate forms including emails social media posts, pop-up advertisements, and banners at an appropriate frequency. (50) the non-intrusive delivery of the marketing messages in a way that is sensitive to the needs of the target customer is one of the critical challenges to the digital marketer.
understanding humans may be complicated, but we reveal a considerable amount about what appeals to us through our browsing history.
section iii writing
write a notice to recruit a student for prof. smith’s research projection campus sports activities. specify the duties and requirements of the job. you should write about 100 words on the answer sheet.
do not sign your own name at the end. use “li ming” instead.
do not write the address. (10 points)
in order to enhance students’ awareness of doing exercise, the professor smith launched a project about campus sports activities. to ensure the successful implementation of this project, a student need to be recruited.
the duties and requirements for the student are as follows. initially, it would be better if the student have a good command of collecting and collating research data, which can offer better service to this research. additionally, professor smith warmly welcome the one who is characterized with enthusiasm, patience and sense of responsibility. finally, the student being recruited should be proficient in physical exercise and be well experienced in organizing a project.
if you are interested in this activity, please do not hesitate to contact us at 010-4722436 or e-mail us at tsinghua firstname.lastname@example.org before july 5th .
write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. in your essay, you should
1）describe the drawing briefly,
2）explain its intended meaning, and then
3）give your comments.
you should write neatly on the answer sheet. (20 points)
it is vividly portrayed in the above drawing that when some young man were rowing dragon boats, a crowd of onlookers gathered to watch the race. a very sweet old lady and her spouse leant on stick stood nearby, said: “it is so nice to see the dragon boat race is getting increasingly lively in our village.” simple as the picture seems to be, the symbolic meaning is thought-provoking.
in contemporary world, individuals in growing number are conscious that traditional culture is a precious treasure for a nation. just as an old saying goes,“we need traditional culture, like need air”. for us chinese, the same is true. we hold the opinion that traditional culture is a kind of priceless mental spirit, which is indispensable both for personal and social purposes. by drawing on our experience from the past, it is no difficulty for us to conclude that precisely because of decades-long emphasis on keeping and spreading our traditional culture, such as the establishment of confucius institute, our country has earned a growing respect from across the world.
from what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that nothing can be compared with carrying forward chinese traditional culture when it comes to the development and prosperity of our country. for that saving and developing china’s traditional culture had a notable influence on our nation and people, we must actively support it.
2023年全国硕士研究生招生考试英语（二）试题（答案版）section i use of english
read the following text. choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark a, b, c or d on the answer sheet. (10 points)
here’s a common scenario that any number of entrepreneurs face today: you’re the ceo of a small business, and though you’re making a nice 1 , you need to find a way to take it to the next level. what you need to do is 2 growth by establishing a growth team. a growth team is made up of members from different departments within your company, and it harnesses the power of collaboration to focus 3 on finding ways to grow.
let’s look at a real-world 4 . prior to forming a growth team, the software company bittorrent had 50 employees working in the 5 departments of engineering, marketing and product development. this brought them good results until 2012, when their growth plateaued. the 6 was that too many customers were using the basic, free version of their product. and ￡7 improvements to the premium, paid version, few people were making the upgrade.
things changed, 8 ,when an innovative project-marketing manager came aboard, ￡9￡ a growth team and sparked the kind of 10 perspective they needed. by looking at engineering issues from a marketing point of view, it became clear that the 11 of upgrades wasn’t due to a quality issue. most customers were simply unaware of the premium version and what it offered.
armed with this 12 , the marketing and engineering teams joined forces to raise awareness by prominently 13 the premium version to users of the free version 14 , upgrades skyrocketed, and revenue increased by 92 percent.
but in order for your growth team to succeed, it needs to have a strong leader. it needs someone who can 15 the interdisciplinary team and keep them on course for improvement. this leader will 16 the target area, set clear goals and establish a time frame for the ￡17￡ of these goals.
the growth leader is also 18 for keeping the team focused on moving forward and steering them clear of distractions. 19 attractive new ideas can be distracting, the team leader must recognize when these ideas don’t 20 the current goal and need to be put on the back burner.
1. [a] purchase [b]profit [c] connection [d] bet
2. [a] define [b] predict [c] prioritize [d] appreciate
3. [a] exclusively [b] temporarily [c]potentially [d] initially
4. [a] experiment [b] proposal [c] debate [d] example
5. [a] identical [b]marginal [c] provisional [d] traditional
6. [a] rumor [b] secret [c]myth [d] problem
7. [a] despite [b] unlike [c] through [d] besides
8. [a]moreover [b]however [c] therefore [d] again
9. [a] inspected [b] created [c]expanded [d] reformed
10. [a]cultural [b] objective [c]fresh [d] personal
11. [a] end [b]burden [c]lack [d] decrease
12. [a]policy [b]suggestion [c]purpose [d] insight
13. [a] contributing [b] allocating [c]promoting [d] transferring
14. [a] as a result [b] at any rate [c]
by the way [d] in a sense
15. [a] unite [b] finance [c] follow [d]choose
16. [a]share [b]identify [c] divide [d] broaden
17. [a] announcement [b] assessment [c]adjustment [d]accomplishment
18. [a] famous [b] responsible [c] available [d] respectable
19. [a]before [b] once [c] while [d] unless
20. [a] serve [b] limit [c] summarize [d] alter
section ⅱ reading comprehension
read the following four texts.
answer the questions below each text by choosing [a], [b], [c] or [d]. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (40 points)
in the quest for the perfect lawn,home owners across the country are taking a shortcut — and it is the environment that is paying the price. about eight million square metres of plastic grass is sold each year but opposition has now spread to the highest gardening circles. the chelsea flower show has banned fake grass from this year’s event, declaring it to be not part of its ethos. the royal horticultural society (rhs), which runs the annual show in west london, says it has introduced the ban because of the damage plastic grass does to the environment and biodiversity.
ed horne, of the rhs, said: “we launched our sustainability strategy last year and fake grass is just not in line with our ethos and views on plastic. we recommend using real grass because of its environmental benefits, which include supporting wildlife, alleviating flooding and cooling the environment.”
the rhs’s decision comes as campaigners try to raise awareness of the problems fake grass causes. a twitter account, which claims to “cut through the green-wash”of artificial grass, already has more than 20,000 followers. it is trying to encourage people to sign two petitions, one calling for a ban on the sale of plastic grass and another calling for an “ecological damage”tax on such lawns. they have gathered 7,276 and 11,282 signatures
however, supporters of fake grass point out that there is also an environmental impact with natural lawns, which need mowing and therefore usually consume electricity or petrol. the industry also points out that real grass requires considerable amounts of water,weed killer or other treatments and that people who lay fake grass tend to use their garden more. the industry also claims that people who lay fake grass spend an average of ￡500 on trees or shrubs for their garden ,which provides habitat for insects.
in response to another petition last year about banning fake lawns, which gathered 30,000 signatures, the government responded that it has “no plans to ban the use of artificial grass”.
it added: “we prefer to help people and organizations make the right choice rather than legislating on such matters, however the use of artificial grass must comply with the legal and policy safeguards in place to protect biodiversity and ensure sustainable drainage, while measures such as the strengthened biodiversity duty should serve to encourage public authorities to consider sustainable alternatives.”
21. the rhs thinks that plastic grass ______.
[a] is harmful to the environment
[b] is a hot topic in gardening circles
[c] is overpraised in the annual show
[d] is ruining the view of west london
22. the petitions mentioned in paragraph 3 reveal the campaigners’ ______.
[a] disappointment with the rhs
[b] resistance to fake grass use
[c] anger over the proposed tax
[d] concern about real grass supply
23. in paragraph 4, supporters of fake grass point out ______.
[a] the necessity to lower the costs of fake grass
[b] the disadvantages of growing real grass
[c] the way to take care of artificial lawns
[d] the challenges of insect habitat protection
24. what would the government do with regard to artificial grass?
[a] urge legislation to restrict its use.
[b] take measures to guarantee its quality.
[c] remind its users to obey existing rules.
[d] replace it with sustainable alternatives.
25. it can be learned from the text that fake grass ______.
[a] is being improved continuously
[b] has seen a market share decline
[c] is becoming increasingly affordable
[d] has been a controversial product
it’s easy to dismiss as absurd the federal government’s ideas for plugging the chronic funding gap of our national parks. can anyone really think it’s a good idea to allow amazon deliveries to your tent in yosemite or food trucks to line up under the redwood trees at sequoia national park?
but the government is right about one thing: u.s. national parks are in crisis. collectively, they have a maintenance backlog of more than $12 billion. roads, trails, restrooms, visitor centers and other infrastructure are crumbling.
but privatizing and commercializing the campgrounds would not be a cure-all. campgrounds are a tiny portion of the overall infrastructure backlog, and businesses in the parks hand over, on average, only about 5% of their revenues to the national park service.
moreover, increased privatization would certainly undercut one of the major reasons why 300 million visitors come to the parks each year: to enjoy nature and get a break from the commercial drumbeat that overwhelms daily life.
the real problem is that the parks have been chronically starved of funding. an economic survey of 700u.s .taxpayers found that people would be willing to pay a significant amount of money to make sure the parks and their programs are kept intact. some 81% of respondents said they would be willing to pay additional taxes for the next l0 years to avoid any cuts to the national parks.
the national parks provide great value to u.s residents both as places to escape and as symbols of nature. on top of this, they produce value from their extensive educational programs, their positive impact on the climate through carbon sequestration, their contribution to our cultural and artistic life, and of course through tourism. the parks also help keep america’s past alive, working with thousands of local jurisdictions around the country to protect historical sites — including ellis island and gettysburg — and to bring the stories of these places to life.
the parks do all this on a shoestring. congress allocates only $3 billion a year to the national park system an amount that has been flat since 2001 (in inflation-adjusted dollars) with the exception of a onetime boost in 2009 as pail of the obama stimulus package. meanwhile, the number of annual visitors has increased by more than 50% since 1980, and now stands at 330 million visitors per year.
26. what problem are u.s. national parks faced with?
[a] decline of business profits
[b] inadequate commercialization
[c] lack of transportation services
[d] poorly maintained infrastructure
27. increased privatization of the campgrounds may ______.
[a] spoil visitor experience
[b] help preserve nature
[c] bring operational pressure
[d] boost visits to parks
28. according to paragraph 5, most respondents in the survey would ______.
[a] go to the national parks on a regular basis
[b] advocate a bigger budget for the national parks
[c] agree to pay extra for the national parks
[c] support the national parks’ receive reforms
29. the national parks are valuable in that they ______.
[a] lead the way in tourism
[b] have historical significance
[c] sponsor research on climate
[d] provide an income for the locals
30. it can be concluded from the text that national park system______.
[a] is able to cope with staff shortage
[b] is able to meet visitor demands
[c] is in need of new pricing policy
[c] is in need of funding increase
the internet may be changing merely what we remember, not our capacity to do so, suggests columbia university psychology professor betsy sparrow. in 2011, sparrow led a study in which participants were asked to record 40 factoids in a computer (“an ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain,” for example). half of the participants were told the information would be erased, while the other half were told it would be saved. guess what?
the latter group made no effort to recall the information when quizzed on it later, because they knew they could find it on their computers. in the same study, a group was asked to remember both the information and the folders it was stored in. they didnt remember the information, but they remembered how to find the folders. in other words, human memory is not deteriorating but “adopting to new communications technology,” sparrow says.
in a very practical way, the internet is becoming an external hard drive for our memories, a process known as “cognitive offloading.” traditionally, this role was fulfilled by data banks, libraries, and other humans. your father may never remember birthdays because your mother does, for instance. some worry that this is having a destructive effect on society, but sparrow sees an upside. perhaps, she suggests, the trend will change our approach to learning from a focus on individual facts and memorization to an emphasis on more conceptual thinking something that is not available on the internet. “i personally have never seen all that much intellectual value in memorizing things,” sparrow says, adding that we haven’t lost our ability to do it.
still other experts say it’s too soon to understand how the internet affects our brains. there is no experimental evidence showing that it interferes with our ability to focus, for instance, wrote psychologists christopher chabris and daniel. j. simons. and surfing the web exercised the brain more than reading did among computer-savvy older adults in a 2008 study involving 24 participants at the semel institute for neuroscience and human behavior at the university of california, los angeles.
“there may be costs associated with our increased reliance on the internet, but i’d have to imagine that overall the benefits are going to outweigh those costs,” observes psychology professor benjamin storm. “it seems pretty clear that memory is changing, but is it changing for the better? at this point, we dont know.”
31. sparrow’s study shows that with the internet, the human brain will ________ .
[a] analyze information in detail
[b] collect information efficiently
[c] switch its focus of memory
[d] extend its memory duration
32. the process of “cognitive offloading” ________.
[a] helps us identify false information
[b] keeps our memory from failing
[c] enables us to classify trivial facts
[d] lessens our memory burdens
33. which of the following would sparrow support about the internet?
[a] it may reform our learning approach
[b] it may impact our society negatively
[c] it may enhance our adaptability to technology
[d] it may interfere with our conceptual thinking
34. it is indicated in paragraph 3 that how the internet affects our brains
[a] requires further academic research
[b] is most studied in older adults
[c] is reflected in our reading speed
[d] depends on our web-surfing habits
35. neither sparrow nor storm would agree that ________.
[a] our reliance on the internet will be costly
[b] the internet is weakening our memory
[c] memory exercise is a must for our brains
[d] our ability to focus declines with age
teenagers are paradoxical. that’s a mild and detached way of saying something that parents often express with considerably stronger language. but the paradox is scientific as well as personal. in adolescence, helpless and dependent children who have relied on grown-ups for just about everything become independent people who can take care of themselves and help each other. at the same time, once cheerful and compliant children become rebellious teenage risk-takers.
a new study published in the journal child development, by eveline crone of the university of london and colleagues, suggests that the positive and negative sides of teenagers go hand in hand. the study is part of a new wave of thinking about adolescence. for a long time, scientists and policy makers concentrated on the idea that teenagers were a problem that needed to be solved. the new work emphasizes that adolescence is a time of opportunity as well as risk.
the researchers studied “prosocial” and rebellious traits in more than 200 children and young adults, ranging from 11 to 28 years old. the participants filled out questionnaires about how often they did things that were altruistic and positive, like sacrificing their own interests to help a friend, or rebellious and negative, like getting drunk or staying out late.
other studies have shown that rebellious behavior increases as you become a teenager and then fades away as you grow older. but the new study shows that, interestingly, the same pattern holds for prosocial behavior. teenagers were more likely than younger children or adults to report that they did things like unselfishly help a friend.
most significantly, there was a positive correlation between prosociality and rebelliousness. the teenagers who were more rebellious were also more likely to help others. the good and bad sides of adolescence seem to develop together.
is there some common factor that underlies these apparently contradictory developments? one idea is that teenage behavior is related to what researchers call “reward sensitivity.” decision-making always involves balancing rewards and risks, benefits and costs. “reward sensitivity” measures how much reward it takes to outweigh risk.
teenagers are particularly sensitive to social rewards winning the game, impressing a new friend, getting that boy to notice you. reward sensitivity, like prosocial behavior and risk-taking, seems to go up in adolescence and then down again as we age. somehow, when you hit 30, the chance that something exciting and new will happen at that party just doesnt seem to outweigh the effort of getting up off the couch.
36. according to paragraph 1, children growing into adolescence tend to ________.
[a] develop opposite personality traits
[b] see the word in an unreasonable way
[c] have fond memories of their past
[d] show affection for their parents
37. it can be learned from 2 that crone’s study ________.
[a] explores teenagers’ social responsibilities
[b] examines teenagers’ emotional problems
[c] provides a new insight into adolescence
[d] highlights negative adolescent behavior
38. what does crones study find about prosocial behavior?
[a] it results from the wish to cooperate
[b] it is cultivated through education
[c] it is subject to family influence
[d] it tends to peak in adolescence
39. it can be learned from the last two paragraphs that teenagers ________.
[a] over-stress their influence on others
[b] care a lot about social recognition
[c] become anxious about their future
[d] endeavor to live a joyful life
40. what is the text mainly about ________.
[a] why teenagers are self-contradictory
[b] why teenagers are risk-sensitive
[c] how teenagers develop prosociality
[d] how teenagers become independent
directions: read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. there are two extra choices in the right column. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (10 points)
net-zero rules set to send cost of new homes and extensions soaring
new building regulations aimed at improving energy efficiency are set to increase the price of new homes, as well as those of extensions and loft conversions on existing ones.
the rules, which came into effect on wednesday in england, are part of government plans to reduce the uk’s carbon emissions to net zero by 2050. they set new standards for ventilation, energy efficiency and heating, and state that new residential buildings must have charging points for electric vehicles.
the moves are the most significant change to building regulations in years, and industry experts say they will inevitably lead to higher prices at a time when a shortage of materials and high labour costs are already driving up bills.
brian berry, chief executive of the federation of master builders, says the measures will require new materials, testing methods, products and systems to be installed. “all this comes at an increased cost during a time when prices are already sky high. inevitably, consumers will have to pay more,” he says.
gareth belsham, of surveyors naismiths, says people who are upgrading, or extending their home, will be directly affected. “the biggest changes relate to heating and insulation,” he explains. “there are new rules concerning the amount of glazing used in extensions, and any new windows or doors must be highly insulated.”
windows and doors will have to adhere to higher standards, while there are new limits on the amount of glazing you can have to reduce unwanted heat from the sun.
thomas goodman, of myjobquote, says this will bring in new restrictions for extensions. “glazing on windows, doors and rooflights must cover no more than 25% of the floor area to prevent heat loss,” he says.
as the rules came into effect last wednesday, property developers were rushing to file plans just before the deadline. any plans submitted before that date are considered to be under the previous rules, and can go ahead as long as work starts before 15 june next year.
builders which have costed projects, but have not filed the paperwork, may need to go back and submit fresh estimates, says marcus jefford of build aviator.
materials prices are already up 25% in the last two years. how much overall prices will increase as a result of the rule changes is not clear.whilst admirable in their intentions, they will add to the cost of house-building at a time when many already feel that they are priced out of home-ownership,” says jonathan rolande of the national association of property buyers. “an average extension will probably see around ￡3,000 additional cost thanks to the new regs.”
john kelly, a construction lawyer at freeths law firm, believes prices will eventually come down. but not in the immediate future. as the marketplace adapts to the new requirements, and the technologies that support them, the scaling up of these technologies will eventually bring costs down, but in the short term, we will all have to pay the price of the necessary transition.” he says.
however, the long-term effects of the changes will be more comfortable and energy-efficient homes, adds andrew mellor, of prp architects. “homeowners will probably recoup that cost over time in energy bill savings. it will obviously be very volatile at the moment, but they will have that benefit over time.”
a. the rise of home prices is a temporary matter.
41. brian berry
b. builders possibly need to submit new estimates of their projects.
42. gareth belsham
c. there will be specific limits on home extensions to prevent heat loss.
43. marcus jefford
d. the new rules will take home prices to an even higher level.
44. john kelly
e. many people feel that home prices are already beyond what they can afford.
45. andrew mellor
f. the new rules will affect people whose home extensions include new windows or doors.
g. the rule changes will benefit homeowners eventually.
section iii translation
translate the following text into chinese. write your translation neatly on the answer sheet. (15 points)
in the late 18th century, william wordsworth became famous for his poems about nature. and he was one of the founders of a movement called romanticism, which celebrated the wonders of the natural world.
poetry is powerful. its energy and rhythm can capture a reader, transport them to another world and make them see things differently. through carefully selected words and phrases, poems can be dramatic, funny, beautiful, moving and inspiring.
no one knows for sure when poetry began but it has been around for thousands of years, even before people could write. it was a way to tell stories and pass down history. it is closely related to song and even when written it is usually created to be performed out loud. poems really come to life when they are recited. this can also help with understanding them too, because the rhythm and sounds of the words become clearer.
section iv writing
an art exhibition and a robot show are to be held on sunday and your friend david asks you which one he should go to. write him an email to
1) make a suggestion, and
2) give your reason(s).
you should write about 100 words on the answer sheet.
do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. use “li ming” instead. (10 points)
i am delighted to know that you are planning to attend the school’s activities on campus this sunday. thus, i am urgently composing this letter to tell some advice from my point of view.
the event i’d like to suggest to go is the robot show and the reasons are as follows. firstly, as a big fan of the robotics field, it is a good chance for you to taste cutting-edge technology from home and abroad in robot areas. secondly, since your major is information technology, you’d better go to the activity themed on a robot. it not only enhances your theoretical knowledge but also broadens your perception. what’s more, this experience will play a paramount role in the employment market after graduation.
i truly hope that my suggestions can help you make a wiser option. if you still feel uncertain, please let me know.
write an essay based on the following chart. in your writing, you should
l) interpret the chart and
2) give your comments.
you should write at least 150 words on the answer sheet. (15 points)
what is illustrated in the line chart shows that the changing trend of improving health literacy from 2012 to 2021. it can be seen from the line chart that people’s health literacy level is increasing year by year. specifically, the figure for health literacy increased by 3.98% from 19.17% in 2019 to 23.15% in 2020.
there are numerous reasons, from my perspective, accounting for the phenomenon and i would like to explore only a few of the most significant ones as follows. in the first place, with the continuous development of the economy and society, people’s living standards have gradually improved, so people have more ways to improve their health. for example, people can enroll in yoga classes or go to the gym to work out. in the second place, because of the outbreak of the covid-19 epidemic, people are increasingly aware of the importance of improving health literacy, so most people begin to exercise and strengthen their physiques.
from the analysis made above, we may come to the conclusion that with further growth in the economy and more changes in life, the tendency indicated in the chart will continue in a better direction.